Thursday, March 18, 2010

History Of Baduy Tribe in indonesia

A. Understanding Ethnographic

Ethnography comes from the word meaning etnos race and that means graphein picture. So ethnography is a description of the tribes. According J.A. Cliffton, social unity in ethnography is characterized by:

1. Bounded by 1 or more villages
2. Languages and dialects
3. Political Administracion
4. Identity with
5. Geographically
6. Unity ecology
7. Penetahuan science and history of the same
8. High frequency of interaction
9. Social arrangement has a uniform trend

B. Ethnographic Study Baduy

The ethnographic study that included the Baduy community consists of:

1. Location and Places Demographics

Baduy village located in Sub LEUWIDAMAR Baduy Rangkasbitung District consists of villages of Banten Gajebo, Cikeusik, Cibeo, and Baduy Cikertawana.dan divided into outer and berluas Baduy dalam.Daerah which 138 ha, consisting of 117 kk 99 houses that occupy the so-called Culah Nyanda or houses on stilts, while the house is called kokolot or duku Dangka, overlooking keselatan.Masyarakat Baduy tribe with a population approximately 10 thousand people are living in the area is hilly, and wooded-forest, to have the valley's steep, to steep . Based on the results of direct measurements in the field residential areas Baduy average lies at an altitude of 250 m above sea level, with residential areas in low areas 150 m above sea level and high enough settlement at an altitude of 400 m above the sea surface.

Baduy region was based on the geographical location is located at 60 27 '27 "- 60 30' N and 1080 3 '9" - 1060 4' 55 "longitude. area is mountainous - the hill with an average altitude of terlelak at 250M above sea level.

b. The Origin History Place

On the origins of the Baduy, the answer would be obtained were those descended from Batara roots, one of the seven gods or a god who is sent to earth. The origin is often attributed to the Prophet Adam as the first ancestor. According to their belief, Adam and his descendants, including members had the task Baduy recluse or ascetic (mandita) to maintain the harmony of the world. They also assume that the tribe Baduy is the first civilization in the world time.

Other opinions which proves the oldest human Baduy at least in Java, based on the evidence of prehistoric and historical, Lebak Sibedug berundak punden Mountain Mist is more than 3 km Cibeo old neolithic period of 2500 BC, have the same symmetry with the same heritage with the pyramids in Egypt and Temple Mancu Pichu in Peru thousands of years ago.

While Arca Domas is still mysterious, located south of Ciujung river Cikeusik dihulu, Kendeng mountains. the south and was first published by Koorders which came on July 5, 1864 (Djoewisno, 1987). Arca Domas is a large Menhir berundak punden above the top. Punden berundak building also features other Menhir. They believe the statue is a symbol Batara Domas Single place where spirits are created and assembled. In addition Domas statue is the center of the earth and human origins descended to earth and became the ancestors of Baduy. Domas statue because it is a ban areas off limits to outsiders (purwitasari, 2000)

The origins of these Baduy people with opinions different from the historians, who based his opinion by way of synthesis of some historical evidence in the form of tablets, travel notes and Chinese Portuguese sailors, and stories of the people of the Tatar Sunda quite minimal existence. Baduy communities associated with the Kingdom of Sunda, or commonly known as the Kingdom of Pajajaran on 15th and 16th century, or roughly six hundred years ago. Banten region at that time an important part of the Kingdom of Pajajaran, based in Pakuan (Bogor area now). Banten is a port of considerable trade. The river is navigable Ciujung various types of boats, and noisy used for transporting agricultural produce from rural areas. Thus the ruler area, called the General Pucuk Prince considers that the sustainability of the river should be maintained. To diperintahkanlah imperial army was highly trained to maintain and manage the heavily wooded areas and hilly in the area Kendeng Mountain. The presence of troops with special duties appear to be the embryo of Baduy community that still inhabit the river area at Mount Kendeng Ciujung it (Adimihardja, 2000). Differences of opinion led to the suspicion that in the past, their historical identity and deliberately closed, which probably is to protect communities from attacks Baduy own enemies Pajajaran

c. Belief Systems and Religions

Baduy tribe which is the traditional tribe in Banten Province near the majority were admitted wiwitan sunda trust.

Which is believed to trust her God as "Guriang Mangtua" or called the creator of the universe and implement appropriate life teachings of the Prophet Adam as the ancestor who inherit this derivative beliefs. Trust sunda wiwitan oriented on how to live a life of worship contained in the act, the pattern of daily life, move and utterance, with the simplicity of life that glorifies (bermewah no-luxury) like not using electricity, walls, cars etc..

There are some activities undertaken by the public trust by sunda Baduy wiwitan:

1. KAWALU ceremony is ceremony conducted in order to welcome the month KAWALU sacred month in which the public KAWALU Baduy perform fasting during the month 3 months Kasa, Karo, and KATIGA.
2. Ngalaksa ceremony is a big ceremony conducted sebagain uacapan thanks for terlewatinya KAWALU months, after carrying out fast for 3 months. Ngalaksa or often called Lebaran.
3. As the visit to the region or the central government aimed at pressing the rope Baduy relationship between society and the government, and is a form of appreciation from the community Baduy.
4. Rice planting ceremony performed to the accompaniment of angklung Buhun a tribute to the goddess sri symbol of prosperity.
5. Conducted through the birth order of activities, namely:

1. Gird the ceremony is 7 months pregnant mothers.

2. when the baby is born will be taken to the shaman or paraji to dijampi-spell.

3. after 7 days after the birth of the event will be held perehan or selametan.

4. Angiran ceremony performed on day 40 after birth.

5. Akikah is done shaving, circumcision, and by the traditional naming
(kokolot) Yuan obtained from a dream at the expense of the chicken.

1. Marriage, is based on the match and performed by the traditional or customary institutions according kokolot (Tangkesan) while Naib as penghulunya. As for the dowry or seserahan of betel, the money he could, and cloth polet.

In carrying out their daily activities Baduy community must be adjusted to the calendar:

1. Month Kasa
2. Month Karo 
3. Month Katilu
4. Month Sapar
5. Month Kalima
6. Month Kaanem
7. Month Kapitu
8. Month Kadalapan
9. Month Kasalapan
10. Month Kasapuluh
11. Month Hapid Lemah
12. Month Hapid Kayu

As described above, if there Baduy community who violates one of the restrictions would be punishable by exile to the upstream or imprisoned by the police authorities.

d. Language

The majority of Sundanese Baduy community but they do not shut down to continue to study the national language of Indonesian. Proved, not a few people who can speak Baduy Inbdonesia.

e. Governance System

Mengnggap Baduy people themselves as descendants far from 7 Batara or god, who was sent into the world at Heritage Sasaka Buana by single Batara. They distributed themselves into several groups based on their descent. Because they live in different settlements. There were 3 settlements in Tangtu (inner regions), namely Cibeo, Cikeusek, and residential areas have Cikartawana.Setiap own puun customary to have a special duty and make contact with a number of settlements in Dangka (outer region Baduy). Any settlement outside has own leaders called Jaro. The entire organization is called "Society three and seven Tangtu Jaro". With more and more people there are also people Baduy who now live outside the official stacking order, ie the additional settlement called penamping or pajaroan.

f. Arts

In particular ceremony, people using the arts to Baduy memeriahkannya. The arts are:

1. Art Musi (ie Cikarileu Folk and Song (verse) that is used in weddings).
2. Musical instruments (Angklung Buhun in rice planting ceremony and musical instrument lute)
3. Batik Carving.

g.Peralatan and Technology

Baduy people's lives centered on processed agricultural cycle by using equipment that is still very simple. In customary Baduy Baduy In particular, people should not use modern equipment already. They rely on equipment that is still very primitive as bedog, axes, hoes, etc..

h.Mata Income

Baduy-income people's lives from agriculture, beginning in the fourth calendar month that begins with Baduy nyacar activities of cleaning all scrub to prepare the fields. There are 4 types of paddy field for the PR assault gogo, is a sacred field for those who berpemukiman in. Huma lading tangtu is done by people covering Baduy In tuladan or huma Huma JARO. Huma is a field penamping done by people Baduy outside the traditional areas.

i. Knowledge Systems

Baduy knowledge systems is to uphold the Pikukuh ie all sets of rules handed down by ancestors. In the case of this knowledge, people Baduy have high levels of tolerance, manners, social life, and farming techniques handed down by ancestors. In modern education Baduy people still left far but they taught himself. So actually very informational Baduy people once actually, to know a lot of information. This is supported because the craze as rawayan (wanderers).

In closing the author notes, the possibility that the old culture has been replaced with a new culture is the culture really indicates relative and adaptive in the environment Baduy tribe, especially outside Baduy. However, in addition to a more accurate comparison foklore (folklore) and other sources, is a relic of history and prehistory are left as the strongest evidence, that they include the oldest community in Banten.

source : Teguh Iman Prasetya

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